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Glossary

1 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | K | L | M | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Z

 


1

1 Mil    

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A

AB Accelerator Adhesion
ADONA Alternative Fuels AMS
AN Antiblock Agent AO
APD AS ASTM

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B

Backrind Batch BFL
Biodiesel Biofuels Bisphenol AF
Blow Molding Blown Film Blow-up Ratio
Bond Bonding Agents BOPP
BRE Brittle Point

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C

Calander CapillaryRheometer CARB
CaSt Cast Film CE10
CE85 CM15 CMF
Coefficient of Friction Coextrusion CoF
Color Change-over Color Concentrate Comonomer
Compound, General Compression Molding Compression Set
Compression Stress Relaxation (CSR) Copolymer CPI
Cross-linking CSM Cure Density
Cure Site Monomer (CSM) Curing Agent

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D

DBU DBU(E) DE
Density Die Die Build-up
Die Gap Dipolymer Dispersion, General
Downgauging Drooling DSC
Durometer Durometer Hardness

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E

Elastomer Elongation Elongation, Ultimate
ESCR ETFE EURO V
EVA Extrusion

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F

FAMEs FC Grades FDA
FE Grades FEP FFKM
FG Grade FG Grades Filler
Filler Content FKM Flash
Flex Fatigue Resistance Flowline FLS Grades
Fluorine Content Fluoroelastomer Fluoroplastic
Fluorothermoplastic FPM FPO Grades
Fuel C

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G

Gasket Gauge Gel
Glass Transition Point Gloss

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H

HALS Hardness HDPE
Heat Aging HFP HK Tables
HLMI HMW-HDPE HP
HT

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I

ID Incorporated Cure System Injection Molding
Internal Mixer ISD ISO

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K

Knitline KW

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L

L/D LDPE LEV
LLDPE Low Temperature Flexibility LTFE Grades

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M

Masterbatch, General Masterbatch, Rubber MB
Melt Fracture Ment index MF
MFR MH MI
Mill MIP Grades Mixer, Internal
ML MLLDPE MLS
Mold Fill Time Mold Fouling Mold Release Agent
Mold Shrinkage Mold Temperature Molecular Weight
Monomer Mooney Scorch Mooney Viscosity
M-PE (also mLLDPE, m-LLDPE) MW

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O

OAT Coolant Oil Resistance O-Ring

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P

PA PE PEG
Perfluoroelastomer Permeability Permeation Rate
Peroxide PFA PFE
PMVE Polymer Polymer Processing Aid
Polyolefins POP Post Cure
PP PPA PPM
Predictive Sealing Press Cure Primer
Processability PS PTFE
PVDF PZEV

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R

Raw Gum RFC Rheometer
Rheovulcameter RME

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S

SAE Scorch SEM
Shaft Seal Shark Skin Shear Rate
Shear Stress SHED Shrink Packaging
Slip Agent SME SORE
SSMF Strain Stress
Stress Relaxation SULEV Synergy

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T

T'50 T'90 Temperature Retraction (TR) Test
Tensile Strength Terpolymer TFE
Tg TGA Thermoforming
Thermogravimetric Analysis Thermoplastics THV
TiO2 TM TNPP
TR-10 Transfer Molding Tribology
Ts2 TSE

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U

UHP UV

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V

VdF VF2 Viscosity
VLLDPE Volume Swell

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W

W&C Weathering

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X

XRF

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Z

ZEV ZnO ZnSt

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1

1 Mil- 0.001 inch (a thousandth of an inch or 0.025 mm).

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A

AB- Antiblocks (used to prevent polymer films from blocking or sticking together).

Accelerator- A compounding material used in small amounts with a vulcanizing agent to increase the speed of vulcanization.

Adhesion- Sticking to a surface.

ADONA- Dyneon™ ADONA™ Emulsifier eliminates the use of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO), a salt derived from perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), completely from its production of fluoropolymers.

Alternative Fuels- Includes fuels that contain 85% or more of alcohol, natural gas, propane, coal-derived liquids, hydrogen, electricity, biodiesel (B100), fuels derived from biological materials P-series fuels (as defined by the U.S. Dept. of Energy - 1992 Energy Policy Act).

AMS- Aerospace Material Specification.

AN- Acid Neutralizer.

Antiblock Agent- Additive incorporated in film to prevent the adhesion (sticking) between touching layers of film during fabrication, storage, or use. Examples of such agents are: diatomaceous earth, silica, and talc.

AO- Antioxidant (1o = primary or usually phenolic-based; 2o = secondary or usually phosphite-based).

APD- Application and Product Development (technical service organization for Dyneon).

AS- Antistats (additives that prevent static charge build-up in polymers).

ASTM- American Society for Testing of Materials.

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B

Backrind- A defect on the surface of a molded part which appears as a crack in the surface, usually appearing at the mold parting line.

Batch- The product of one mixing operation.

BFL- Blown film line.

Biodiesel- Any fuel or mixture of fuels that is derived in whole or part from agricultural products and is suitable for diesel engines. (U.S. Dept. of Energy).

Biofuels- Any renewable fuel derived from biomass.

Bisphenol AF- Crosslinker for fluoroelastomers.

Blow Molding- Technique for extruding bottles: An extruder is operated continuously and the output either feeds an accumulator or flows through the die as an endless parison which is pinched off and filled with air forcing it into the shape of the mold.

Blown Film- Process involves extruding a continuous thin walled tube of plastic and inflating it immediately after it leaves the die. The pressure is such that the tube stretches, increasing its diameter and reduces its wall thickness to desired gauge. This is a standard technique for the production of plastic film.

Blow-up Ratio- The ratio of the final tube diameter to the die diameter in blown film extrusion. In blow molding, it is the ratio between the mold cavity diameter and the parison diameter.

Bond- The union of materials by use of adhesives, usually used in relation to parts vulcanized after attaching.

Bonding Agents- Substances used to promote the bonding of rubber to other materials, e.g., metals and textiles.

BOPP- Bioriented Polypropylene. The process of stretching a hot plastic film or other article in two directions under conditions resulting in molecular orientation in two directions.

BRE- Base resistant elastomer.

Brittle Point- Highest temperature in a series of low temperatures at which the sample breaks when subjected to a sharp blow.

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C

Calander- Machine with two or more rolls, operating at selected surface speeds, and controlled temperatures, for sheeting, laminating, skim coating, and friction coating to a controlled thickness and/or surface characteristic.

Capillary Rheometer- An instrument for measuring the shear flow properties of polymer melts. The data obtained are usually presented as graphs of shear stress or viscosity against shear rate at a constant temperature.

CARB- California Air Resources Board.

CaSt- Calcium Stearate (acid neutralizer).

Cast Film- Film extruded from a flat die onto chill rolls.

CE10- A mixture of 90% RFC and 10% Ethanol.

CE85- A mixture of 15% RFC and 85% Ethanol.

CM15- A mixture of 85% RFC and 15% Methanol.

CMF- Cyclic Melt Fracture.

Coefficient Of Friction- Resistance to movement of sliding or rolling surfaces of solid bodies in contact with each other.

Coextrusion- Simultaneous extrusion of different layers of hoses, profiles, films, etc., in the same die head.

CoF- Coefficient of Friction (as measured by ASTM D 1894-78).

Color Change-over- Switch of colors during plastic manufacturing (injection molding, blow molding, fiber extrusion).

Color Concentrate- Plastic compound which contains a high percentage of pigment to be blended into base resins.

Comonomer- Other monomer used for PE polymerization (C4 butene, C6 hexene, C8 octene).

Compound, General- Intimate mixture of a polymer with all the materials necessary for the finished article. Sometimes called stock.

Compression Stress Relaxation (CSR)- The measurement of a material’s ability to be compressed and maintain the resultant sealing force over a range of environmental conditions.

Compression Molding- Molding process in which the material is placed directly in the mold cavity and compressed to shape by closure of the mold.

Compression Set- The residual deformation of a material after removal of the compressive stress. Generally obtained after stress was applied for a given length of time at a specified temperature.

Copolymer- Polymer formed of two or more monomers.

CPI- Chemical Processing Industry.

Cross-linking- When chemical bonds set up between molecular chains, the material is said to be cross-linked. Once cross-linked, materials cannot be reprocessed. A form of curing.

CSM- See: Cure site monomer.

Cure Density- Density of the cross-linked network structure.

Cure Site Monomer (CSM)- Monomer that permits cross-linking through radical cure systems (peroxides).

Curing Agent- Chemical which will cause cross-linking to occur.

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D

DBU- Die build-up.

DBU(E)- Die build-up (elimination).

DE- Diatomaceous Earth (antiblock).

Density- The mass per unit volume of a material.

Die- A steel block containing an orifice through which plastic is extruded, shaping the extrudate to the desired form.

Die Build-up- Accumulation of material deposits on the surface of the die.

Die Gap- Distance between the metal faces forming the die opening.

Dipolymer- Polymer formed of two monomers.

Dispersion, General- Fine division of particles of a pigment, additives or other solids in another material.

Downgauging- A way to reduce thickness in plastic films, bottles, etc.

Drooling- Leakage of resin from a nozzle or around the nozzle area during the injection step in injection molding or around the screen-pack during extrusion.

DSC- Differential scanning calorimeter (analytical instrument used to measure melting temperature, onset of thermal decay and other thermal data).

Durometer- An instrument for measuring the hardness of rubber and plastics. “A” Durometer is used for flexible materials the “D” for rigid materials.

Durometer Hardness- An arbitrary numbering scale that indicates the resistance to indentation of the indentor point of the Durometer. High values indicate harder materials. The value may be taken immediately (highest point) or after a very short specified time.

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E

Elastomer- A polymeric material which, at room temperature, is capable of recovering substantially in shape and size after removal of a deforming force. This generally refers to a synthetic polymer as opposed to rubber, which preferably indicates the natural product.

Elongation- Extension produced by tensile stress, usually expressed as a percent of original unit length (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Elongation, Ultimate- The elongation at time of rupture (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

ESCR- Environmental stress crack resistance.

ETFE- A polymer of tetrafluoroethylene and ethylene.

EURO V- European regulations for motorized vehicle emissions; V refers to the fifth stage.

EVA- Copolymer of vinyl acetate and ethylene.

Extrusion- Process to force rubbers or thermoplastics through an orifice, which is often shaped to the geometry of the desired product.

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F

FAMEs- Fatty acid methyl esters.

FC Grades- Dyneon’s line of dipolymer products based on combinations of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene monomers. Some of these products contain incorporated cure packages. Many of these products have alternative counterparts in our FE or MIP product lines that may offer improved processibility.

FDA- United States Food and Drug Administration.

FE Grades- Dyneon’s line of dipolymer or terpolymer products based on combinations of vinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene monomers. This family of products was designed to offer improved processing characteristics over our FC grades. They are based on cure systems and modified polymers designed to yield improved scorch safety, mold release characteristics and improved processing in fabrication processes such as injection molding and extrusion.

FEP- A polymer of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene.

FFKM- ASTM designation for perfluoroelastomers.

FG Grade- Dyneon product that complies with specified U.S. FDA or other food contact regulations, and may be considered for use in certain food contact applications subject to the provisions, including specifications, conditions of use, or limitations, if any, in the specified regulation.

FG Grades- Dyneon’s line of incorporated cure, dipolymer products based on vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene that comply with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation C.F.R. 177.2600 (c)(4)(i). The cure system incorporated into these products offers excellent moldability, including scorch safety and mold release characteristics.

Filler- A solid compounding material, usually in finely divided form, which may be added in relatively large proportions to a polymer for technical and/or economical reasons.

Filler Content- Amount of filler(s) in a formulation (generally expressed in phr = parts per hundred parts of rubber).

FKM- ASTM designation for fluoroelastomers.

Flash- The excess material protruding from the surface of a molded article at the mold junctions.

Flex Fatigue Resistance- Endurance testing of rubber parts under dynamic stress.

FLS Grades- Dyneon’s line of high fluorine content terpolymers based primarily on vinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene monomers. Due to the higher percentage of fluorine in these products, they typically offer improved chemical resistance over lower fluorine containing terpolymers or dipolymers.

Flowline- A defect in the surface of a molded part where the elastomer shows the witness of two flowing fronts that have not completely filled. Also known as a knitline.

Fluorine Content- Weight percentage of fluorine atoms in the base polymer.

Fluoroelastomer- Elastomeric polymer consisting of fluorine containing monomers.

Fluoroplastic- Specialty plastic that contains significant amounts of fluorinated repetition units so that the characteristics of the material are impacted by the fluorinated repetition units.

Fluorothermoplastic- Fluoroplastic that can be molten repeatedly and that can be processed by conventional melt-processing techniques, e.g., extrusion, injection molding, etc.

FPM- European abbreviation for fluoroelastomer versus FKM which is the abbreviation used in North and South Americas.

FPO Grades- Dyneon’s new product line of peroxide cured fluoropolymers. Offering broader chemical resistance at high temperatures in environments where steam, water and acids are present.

Fuel C- 50/50 mixture by volume (Toluene/Isooctane).

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G

Gasket- Deformable material clamped between essentially stationary faces to prevent the passage of matter through an opening or joint.

Gauge- Thickness of plastic film measured in decimal inches or mils.

Gel- Small globular mass which has not blended completely into the surrounding material resulting in a fault in the film or sheet. Gels might be caused by poor mixing, cross-linking or oxidation of the plastic.

Glass Transition Point- Temperature at which a material loses its glasslike properties and becomes a semi-liquid (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982). May be referenced as Tg.

Gloss- Brightness or luster of a plastic resulting from a smooth surface.

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H

HALS- Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer (additives that enhance UV and processing stability).

Hardness- The resistance to indentation as measured under specified conditions (also see durometer hardness).

HDPE- High density polyethylene.

Heat Aging- “When specimens of vulcanized rubber are given accelerated aging in air or oxygen at elevated temperatures and in some cases, pressure for specified periods of time. The deterioration is generally noted as a percentchange from originally measured properties (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982)”.

HFP- Hexafluoropropylene.

HK Tables- Fluoroelastomer classification system defined in SAE J200 / ASTM D 2000.

HLMI- High load melt index (21.6 vs. 2.16 kg) usually used for HMW-HDPE.

HMW-HDPE- High molecular weight - high density polyethylene.

HP- Horsepower.

HT- Hydrotalcite (acid neutralizer).

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I

ID- Inner diameter.

Incorporated Cure System- Commercially available fluoroelastomer grades with well ballanced curative package added by the polymer manufacturer; the composition and the dosage of the curatives are adjusted to the application of the finished article.

Injection Molding- Process of forming a material by forcing it from an auxiliary heated chamber through a sprue into the cavity of a closed mold by means of a pressure gradient that is independent from the mold clamping force.

Internal Mixer- An enclosed mixing machine of high power for rubber and other suitable material, inside of which are two counter-rotating heavy mixing rotors with small clearance between themselves and the enclosing walls. The mixing chamber is jacketed and may be heated.

ISD- Independent Sealing Distributors.

ISO- International Organization of Standardization.

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K

Knitline- A defect in the surface of a molded part where the elastomer shows the witness of two flowing fronts that have not completely filled. Also known as a flowline.

KW- Kilowatt (electrical power measure).

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L

L/D- Ratio of length to diameter of the extruder screw or extrusion die.

LDPE- Low-density polyethylene.

LEV- Low emission vehicle.

LLDPE- Linear low density polyethylene.

Low Temperature Flexibility- The ability of a rubber product to be flexed, bent or bowed at specified temperatures without loss of serviceability (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

LTFE Grades- Dyneon’s Low Temperature Fluoroelastomers, offering excellent low temperature sealing capability, excellent fuel and oil resistance, and low compression set resistance in peroxide-cured fluoroelastomers.

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M

Masterbatch, General- Concentrated blend of pigment, additives, filler, etc. in a base polymer. Masterbatch is added in small amounts to large volume of material (the same as or compatible with the base polymer) to produce the desired formulation. The term masterbatch is sometimes used for color concentrate as well as for concentration of other additives.

Masterbatch, Rubber- Homogenuous mixture of rubber and one or more materials in known proportions for use as a raw material in the preparation of the final compounds.

MB- Masterbatch.

Melt Fracture- A phenomenon of melt extrudate in which the surface appears rough or wavy upon exit from the die. Melt fracture may appear uniformly or in certain sections only.

Melt Index- A viscosity measurement; the number of grams, of a thermoplastic resin which can be forced through a 0.0825 inch orifice when subjected to 2160 grams force in 10 minutes at 190°C (374°F).

MF- Melt fracture.

MFR- Melt flow rate.

MH- Maximum torque on the cure curve.

MI- Melt index.

Mill- Machine with two counter rotating rolls, usually driven at different speeds, having adjustable longitudinal axis separation from one to another to alter the nip, used for breakdown mastication, mixing or sheeting.

MIP Grades- Dyneon’s line of multifunctional improved productivity fluoroelastomers offering improved flow properties, faster cure times and excellent processability.

Mixer, Internal- Machine with a closed cavity in which a specially shaped rotor(s) masticate the rubber and incorporate and/or disperse compounding materials into the rubber.

ML- Minimum torque on the cure curve. Usually used when refering to alternating layers of steel/FKM coating/steel.

MLLDPE- Metallocene linear low density polyethylene.

MLS- Multi-layer steel. Usually used when refering to alternating layers of steel/FKM coating/steel.

Mold Fill Time- Time to fill the mold (injection molding).

Mold Fouling- Chemicals extracted from rubber on the mold or layers of rubber baked to the mold.

Mold Release Agent- Substance applied to the surfaces of the mold or added to a material to be molded, to facilitate removal of the product from the mold.

Mold Shrinkage- The difference in dimensions, expressed in inches per inch, between a molding and the mold cavity in which it was molded, both the mold and the molding being at room temperature when measured (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Mold Temperature- Temperature of the mold during the curing process.

Molecular Weight- The weight of a molecule of a substance referred to that of an atom of oygen as 16. The molecular weights of a polymer vary considerably within the polymer and therefore are stated as averages.

Monomer- Low molecular weight substance consisting of molecules capable of reacting with like or unlike molecules to form a polymer.

Mooney Scorch- A procedure for determining the cure characteristics of a compound using a mooney viscometer, generally at specified elevated temperatures. The values versus time are recorded or plotted and the time values reported when the viscosity values have increased 5 and 30 points above the minimum (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Mooney Viscosity- Measure of the viscosity of a rubber or rubber compound determined in a mooney shearing disc viscometer.

M-PE (also mLLDPE, m-LLDPE)- Metallocene catalyzed polyethylene.

MW- Molecular weight.

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O

OAT Coolant- Organic acid technology (long life) coolant. OAT coolants are typically used in diesel engine cooling systems.

Oil Resistance- The ability to withstand swelling and deterioration by a specified oily liquid for a specified time and temperature (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

O-Ring- Product of precise dimensions molded in one piece to the configuration of a torus with a circular cross section, suitable for use in a machined groove for static or dynamic service.

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P

PA- Polymer additive.

PE- Polyethylene.

Perfluoroelastomer- Perfluorinated rubber of the polymethylene type having all fluoro, perfluoroalkyl, or perfluoroalkoxy substituent groups on the polymer chain (ASTM D 1418).

PEG- Polyethylene glycol.

Permeability- The permeation rate divided by the pressure gradient of the gas or vapor.

Permeation Rate- The flow rate of a gas or a vapor, under specified conditions, through a prescribed area of a solid body, divided by that area.

Peroxide- A compound containing a bivalent ––O—O— group in the molecule. They are strong oxidizing agents and are very reactive (examples: benzoyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide). Used in polymerization reactions and for cross-linking agents.

PFA- A polymer of tetrafluoroethylene and perfluorovinylether.

PFE- Dyneon’s designation for Perfluoroelastomer.

PMVE- Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether.

Polymer- Substance consisting of molecules characterized by the repetition of one or more types of monomeric units.

Polymer Processing Aid- Additives incorporated into thermoplastics, particularly polyolefins to eliminate melt fracture, reduce die build-up, while increasing throughput and productivity during the extrusion of films, pipes, sheets, etc.

Polyolefins- Class of polymers made by polymerizing relatively simple olefins, including ethylene, propylene, butenes, isoprenes, and pentenes.

POP- Polyolefin plastomer

Post Cure- Heat or radiation treatment, or both, to which a cured or partially cured thermosetting plastic or rubber composition is subjected to increase the state of cure or enhance the level of one or more properties (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

PP- Polypropylene.

PPA- Polymer processing additive (also PA, PPAs).

PPM- Parts per Million (concentration), 1000 PPM 0.1%.

Predictive Sealing- Dyneon uses leak testing in combination with sealing force analysis to predict the sealing ability of a material for a particular design.

Press Cure- Vulcanization of rubber in a press operated by hydraulic pressure. The mold is placed between heated plates.

Primer- Coating applied to the surface of a material, prior to application of an adhesive to improve the performance of the adhesive bond.

Processability- The relative ease with which raw or compounded rubber can be handled in rubber machinery (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

PS- Polystyrene.

PTFE- Polytetrafluoroethylene.

PVDF- A polymer of vinylidene fluoride.

PZEV- Partial zero emission vehicle.

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R

Raw Gum- Base material for rubber compounds.

RFC- Reference Fuel C - a mixture of 50% Toluene and 50% IsoOctane.

Rheometer- Measuring device to measure the rheological properties of elastomeric compounds.

Rheovulcameter- Measuring device to measure the rheological properties of elastomeric compounds.

RME- Rapeseed methyl ester.

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S

SAE- Society of Automotive Engineers.

Scorch- Premature vulcanization of a rubber compound.

SEM- Scanning electron microscope.

Shaft Seal- Article to seal rotating shafts.

Shark Skin- Surface irregularity of a film or a blow molded container during extrusion. See Melt Fracture.

Shear Rate- Normalised (independent of the machine geometry) measure that indicates the output of the extruder. The unit of shear rate is sec-1.

Shear Stress- The stress applied on a material to deform it and make it flow, at a fixed shear rate, is directly proportional to the viscosity.

SHED- Sealed housing for emission detection.

Shrink Packaging- Technique for packaging by wrapping items in a film or bag which, when heated, fits tightly around the contained article.

Shrinkage Volume- Contraction of a molded rubber product on cooling from vulcanization temperature.

Slip Agent- Compounded into the plastic, the additive gradually migrates to the surface where it reduces the coefficient of friction.

SME- Soy methyl ester.

SORE- Small off-road engine or equipment.

SSMF- Sharkskin melt fracture.

Strain- Deformation resulting from a stress (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Stress- Force per unit of original cross sectional area that is applied to a part or specimen (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Stress Relaxation- The time dependent decrease in stress for a specimen at constant strain (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

SULEV- Super ultra low emission vehicle.

Synergy- Phenomenon wherein the effect of a combination of two additives is greater than the effect that could be expected from the known performance of each additive used singly.

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T

T'50- Time to 50% cure in minutes.

T'90- Time to 90% cure in minutes.

Temperature Retraction (TR) Test- A method for evaluating the low temperature characteristics of a vulcanized part by measuring the temperature at which retraction over the range of 10% to 70% of original elongation occurs. The test is generally employed to determine the susceptibility of a rubber to crystallize. The specimen is stretched at room temperature, cooled to very low temperature, released and warmed at a uniform rate (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Tensile Strength- Maximum tensile stress applied during stretching of a specimen to rupture (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Terpolymer- Polymer formed of three monomer species.

TFE- Tetrafluoroethylene.

Tg- Glass transition temperature.

TGA- Thermalgravimetric analysis.

THV- A polymer of tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and vinylidene fluoride.

Thermoforming- Process of forming a thermoplastic sheet into a three dimensional shape by clamping the sheet in a frame, heating it to render it soft, then applying differential pressure to make the sheet conform to the shape of a mold or die positioned below the frame.

Thermogravimetric Analysis- A test procedure used to determine the thermal stability or composition of a material. Two modes are possible: determining the change of weight of a specimen while changing temperature at a given rate, or the change of weight of a specimen with time at a fixed temperature (The Language of Rubber, Automotive Elastomers & Design, March 1982).

Thermoplastics- Resins or plastic compounds which, in their final state as finished articles, are capable of being repeatedly softened by an increase of temperature and hardened by a decrease of temperature.

TiO2- Titanium Dioxide (white pigment).

TM- Trademark.

TNPP- Tris (nonylphenyl) phosphate.

TR-10- Measure of cold temperature elasticity of vulcanized rubber articles.

Transfer Molding- The process of forming a material by forcing it from an auxiliary heated chamber through a sprue into the cavity of a closed mold by means of a pressure gradient that is dependent on the mold clamping force.

Tribology- Study of friction and wear.

Ts2- Time to 2-inch rise from minimum in minutes.

TSE- Twin screw extruder.

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U

UHP- Ultra high purity.

UV- Ultraviolet radiation.

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V

VdF- Vinylidene fluoride (also VF2).

VF2- Vinylidene fluoride (also VdF).

Viscosity- The measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow (either through a specific orifice or in a rotational viscometer). The absolute unit of viscosity measurement is poise (or centipoise).

VLLDPE- Very linear low density polyethylene.

Volume Swell- Percentage increase in volume attained by immersing a vulcanized sample of rubber in a specific substance. Volume swell is used to determine the resistance of rubber to chemicals as well as to measure the cross-link density.

VOME- Vegetable oil methyl esters.

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W

W&C- Wire and cable.

Weathering- Testing of plastics, textiles and coatings for resistance to atmospheric influences through outdoor or indoor testing with appropiate equipment.

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X

XRF- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

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Z

ZEV- Zero emission vehicle.

ZnO- Zinc oxide (acid neutralizer).

ZnSt- Zinc stearate (acid neutralizer).

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